the defeat of the dispossessed Viscount Trencavel in 1240, when he tried
to reconquest his city, the ramparts of Carcassonne were considerably strengthened,
as well as five other fortresses of the region.
Five Sons made up a tremendous line of defence in front of the Spanish border
(Kingdom of Aragon at that time) : Aguilar, Quéribus, Peyrepertuse, Puilaurens
and Termes. These fortresses still exist today, and are very famous as "The
citadels of vertigo".
centuries of rivalries and wars, France led by King Louis XIV (the Sun King)
and Spain signed the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. Louis married Infanta
Maria Teresa and the Treaty gave France a new province : Roussillon.
new frontier moved back on the crest line of the Pyrenees. The five fortresses
lost at the same moment any strategic importance. Some of them kept a small
garrison, sometimes till the French Revolution (1789-1799). But they slowly
fell into neglect, becoming herdmen's or brigands' shelters.